The biz TLD was created to relieve some of the demand for domain names in the com top-level domain, and to provide an alternative for businesses whose preferred domain name in com had already been registered by another party. There are no specific legal or geographic qualifications to register a biz domain name, except that it must be for "bona fide business or commercial use." It was created in 2001 along with several other domains as the first batch of new gTLDs approved by ICANN in the expansion of the Domain Name System following the increased interest in internet commerce in the late 1990s. The TLD is administered by NeuStar and registrations are processed via accredited registrars.
In contrast to other newly installed top-level domains, the biz registry did not implement a sunrise period to grant trademark owners first chance at registration, but instead used a procedure whereby they could file intellectual property claims in advance and then challenge any eventual registrant through a policy named Startup Trademark Opposition Policy (STOP). A number of domains were successfully obtained by trademark owners from other registrants through this policy; some of the more controversial cases, where generic words were taken over based on trademark claims in a process deemed "reverse hijacking" by critics, included that of paint.biz and Canadian.biz, the latter being reversed by a court decision.
Permanently settled for around 2000 years, Zürich has a history that goes back to its founding by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6400 years ago. During the Middle Ages Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Ulrich Zwingli.
In 1814, the former district of Zürich has been established including the municipalities – «Landgemeinden des Bezirks Zürich» (country municipalities) – surrounding the old city of Zurich, the so-called Altstadt. The district of Zürich as it exists today, was created on 1 July 1989, by splitting the former district of Zürich into three parts:
Therefore, since 1 July 1989, the district of Zürich (SFOS number 0112) shares the same area as the city of Zurich (0261) with its subdivisions totalling 390,474 (as of 31 December 2014) inhabitants on an area of 87.78km2 (33.89sqmi).
Municipalities (subdivisions) of the district of Zürich